All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Gregg M Janowski

Advisory Committee Members

Derrick R Dean

Michael S Reddy

R Michael Banish

Vinoy Thomas

Document Type

Dissertation

Date of Award

2010

Degree Name by School

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) School of Engineering

Abstract

The aging of the global population will lead to a considerable increase in the number of surgical and restorative procedures related to oral rehabilitation or periodontal regeneration. Periodontitis is one of the most aggressive pathologies that concern the integrity of the periodontal system that can lead to the destruction of the periodontium. Guided tissue and guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) have been used for the repair and regeneration of periodontal tissues by utilizing an occlusive membrane.The goal of this dissertation is to advance the knowledge in the area of periodontal regeneration by investigating the properties of a commercially available freeze-dried collagen-based graft (AlloDerm®) and by designing/fabricating a functionally graded membrane (FGM) via multilayer electrospinning. The effects of different rehydration times and of a simultaneous rehydration/crosslinking procedure on the biomechanical properties and matrix stability of the commercially available membrane were investigated. The results revealed that there are significant changes on the biomechanical properties of the graft as rehydration time increases. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the simultaneous rehydration/crosslinking protocol has a synergistic effect in terms of enhancing biomechanical properties. A FGM consisting of a core-layer (CL) and two functional surface-layers (SL) was fabricated via sequential electrospinning. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HAp) were incorporated to enhance bone formation (SL facing bone defect), and metronidazole benzoate (MET) was added to prevent bacterial colonization (SL facing the epithelial tissue). Degradation studies performed on both the CL and the FGM confirmed that the design holds promise in terms of providing the required mechanical stability to avoid membrane collapse and, therefore, enhance bone regeneration. Finally, it was demonstrated that MET incorporation into the SL that would face epithelial tissue is effective in fighting periodontopathogens in an in vitro model. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of this FGM on new bone formation in bone defects and to provide a quantitative evaluation in terms of the in vivo antibacterial potential of the FGM.

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Engineering Commons

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