All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Nada M Souccar

Advisory Committee Members

Chung H Kau

Amjad Javed

Maninder Kaur

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Master of Dentistry (MDent) School of Dentistry


The objective of this study was to perform a volumetric analysis of the lips at rest and upon smiling in African American and Caucasian females distributed throughout five age groups. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional surface facial images of 100 African American females and 100 Caucasian females were obtained using the 3dMDTMface system (3dMDface, Atlanta GA). Images were analyzed using the Aging Evaluation Analysis (AEVA) software (Eotech, Paris, France) to assess lip volume at rest and upon smile. The following linear measurements were also calculated upon smiling and non-smiling: subnasale-stomion superius, commissure-commissure, stomion inferius-labiomental sulcus. Gingival display and crown length was measured upon smiling. Results: A one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the age difference in lip volumes stratified by race. Upper lip volume at rest demonstrated a significant increase with age in both groups. Lower lip volume and upper lip volume upon smile were found to be non-significant. A two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of age, race and their interaction on lip volume and linear measurements. A statistical significant amount of volumetric increase was found as the subjects aged. Group I had a mean of 5046.92 cc ± 1838.02 compared to group V with a mean of 6704.41cc ± 2226.18. Upper lip volume upon smile also showed an increase with a statistical significant difference between group I (5548.49 cc ± 1695.81) and group V (6622.93 cc ± 2237.53). Lower lip volumes at rest and smile demonstrated no statistical significant differences. African American females displayed a significant greater amount of volume on all volume measurements. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that the upper lip is more susceptible to age then the lower lip. The findings demonstrate that the upper lip volume increases as African American and Caucasian females age. No significant results were found in evaluating the lower lip. African American females demonstrated a significant greater amount of volume than Caucasian females. Additional research with a larger sample size and additional volume extraction methods are needed to confirm the results.

Included in

Dentistry Commons



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