All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Ejvis Lamani

Advisory Committee Members

Bill Dischinger

Amjad Javed

Mark Johnston

Chung-How Kau

Neal Kravitz

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Master of Science (MS) School of Dentistry


Objective: The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to assess the utilization of the Herbst device in mandibular molar protraction. Second, to compare the effectiveness of the protraction Herbst and TADs in patients with congenitally missing mandibular second premolars. Methods: This project was designed as a retrospective study. Orthodontic patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing mandibular premolars, who received the protraction Herbst appliance or TADs as part of their treatment were included in the study. We excluded patients treated with maxillary counterbalancing extractions. Our final patient sample included a total of 33 patients (22 females and 11 males). Of these, 21 patients were treated with the protraction Herbst, and 12 patients were treated with TADs. The Herbst data was obtained from two different clinics, while the TAD group was treated at a third office. Lateral cephalograms taken at two timepoints- pre-treatment (T0) and post-treatment (T1) - were used to assess changes in molar and incisor positions, skeletal base position and occlusal plane angulation. Scans or photographs taken at T0 and T1 were used to assess canine relationship changes, which represented the anchorage control. The total time taken for space closure as well as breakage/failure rates were also recorded. Paired and unpaired t-tests were used to analyze the data. iv Results: Both groups were similar in age, with averages of 13.23 years for the Herbst-adjunct group and 13.08 years for the TAD-treated group. Within the Herbst group, 5 out of 8 cephalometric variables showed statistically significant changes (p

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