All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Lalita A Shevde

Advisory Committee Members

Etty N Benveniste

Xu Feng

Selvarangan Ponnazhagan

Ralph D Sanderson

Document Type

Dissertation

Date of Award

2018

Degree Name by School

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Heersink School of Medicine

Abstract

In the tumor microenvironment, breast cancer cells participate in crosstalk with the surrounding stroma. This tumoral-stromal interaction forms a balance that dictates tumor suppressing or tumor promoting response mechanisms. Macrophages in the tumor microenvironment are plastic and can mediate several functions depending on their activation states. Tumor associated macrophages co-exist as two major phenotypes: anti-tumorigenic and immune-eliciting classically activated M1 as well as tumor-promoting and immune-suppressive alternatively activated M2 macrophages. Alternatively activated macrophages are specifically associated with more aggressive stages and poor clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients as they suppress the tumoricidal properties of the immune system, thus facilitating tumor cell proliferation and dissemination. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is a critical developmental pathway; its activation modulates vital cellular processes such as proliferation, stem-cell differentiation, limb development, and angiogenesis. While the Hh signaling pathway is normally tightly controlled, it can often become dysregulated, thus fostering tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Aberrant Hh signaling activation is particularly implicated in breast cancer progression and metastasis. In this study, we investigate the role of Hh signaling in polarizing breast cancer-associated macrophages toward the detrimental M2 subtype. We report that targeting different steps of the Hh signaling cascade attenuates the cytokine profile associated with M2 macrophages. Additionally, we demonstrate that Hh signaling enables the molecular mechanism responsible for alternative macrophage polarization. We furthermore identify significant shifts in immune cell populations infiltrating the primary tumor upon the administration of an FDA-approved Hh inhibitor to an in vivo mammary tumor model. This altered immune profile is dynamically characterized by a reduction in immune-suppressive cells concomitant with enhanced cytotoxic immune cell infiltration, overall culminating in reduced metastasis. Thus, we describe a novel role for Hh signaling in enabling pro-tumorigenic immunity by alternatively polarizing breast cancer-associated macrophages. This study identifies a novel strategy, which has potential clinical implications to treat breast cancer through targeting aberrant tumor cell Hh activation and eliciting a robust anti-tumorigenic immune response.

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