All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Chung H Kau

Advisory Committee Members

Nate Lawson

Amjad Javed

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Master of Science in Dentistry (MScD) School of Dentistry


Objectives: The adult population is a fast growing subgroup of orthodontic practices. The facial soft tissues of adults are different from adolescents, and there is significant sexual dimorphism in the aging of facial soft tissue. It is imperative for the orthodontist to understand how aging effects the soft tissues of the face, and to know how male and females differ in this process. The objectives of this study include: 1.) Identification of trends in facial aging among a Caucasian male and African American male sample utilizing three-dimensional surface imaging technology. 2.) Comparison of the aging effects between the Caucasian and African American sample. 3.) Development of a database of facial norms for African American and Caucasian males by age group. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 100 African American males and 100 Caucasian males. Twenty subjects of each race were included in each of 5 age groups [20-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61-70]. Three dimensional surface images of each participant were acquired using the 3dMD camera (3dMDface, Atlanta, GA), and twenty nine soft tissue landmarks were plotted within the 3dMD Vultus software. Means and standard deviations were calculated for each landmark as a distance from the origin (Nasion). In addition to linear measurements to Nasion, twenty-two facial measurements, 15 linear and 7 angular, were calculated for each face. ANOVA tests were utilized to compare all landmarks across the five age groups within each racial group. For those ANOVA tests that were statistically significant, pairwise comparisons were made utilizing Tukey’s honest significance test. Student’s t-test was used for comparison of facial feature measures between African-American and Caucasian males by age group. Results/Conclusions: The results indicate that all areas of the face are affected by aging in both the African American and Caucasian subgroups. The conclusions are as follows: 1.) The aging process in males seems to be continuous over the decades studies; the structures that do show changes appear to do so over all the decades studied. 2.) African American have larger facial features overall than Caucasians. 3.) The measures nasolabial angle, nasofrontal angle, and mentolabial sulcus each change with age. 4.) Nasolabial angle decreases with age in African American and Caucasian males. 5.) The lips become flatter in both races as the commisures descend.

Included in

Dentistry Commons