All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Chung H Kau

Advisory Committee Members

Amjad Javed

Christos Vlachos

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Master of Science (MS) School of Dentistry


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the use of three dimensional facial averages in determining facial morphological differences between a native adult Egyptian population and a native adult Brazilian population. Methods: Three- dimensional images were acquired through a commercially available stereo-photogrammetric camera system. The 3dMDfaceTM system was used to capture images from 186 subjects from two population groups (Egypt and Brazil). Each image was obtained as a facial mesh and orientated along a triangulated axis. All facial images were overlaid and superimposed, and a complex mathematical algorithm was performed to create a composite facial average of one man and one woman , for each subgroup (EGY-M: Egyptian males, EGY-F: Egyptian females, BRA-M: Brazilian males, and BRA-F: Brazilian females. These computer generated facial averages were superimposed based on a previously validated superimposition method, and the facial differences were evaluated and quantified. Results: Distinct facial differences were evident between the population subgroups evaluated. These differences could be seen in the mandible, nose, malar region, lips and lower facial regions. The mean facial differences between the Egyptian and Brazilian females were 0.68 ± 0.75 mm while the differences in the Egyptian and Brazilian males were 0.76 ± 0.61 mm. The range of differences for the female population pairings and the male population pairings were 4.18 mm and 3.47 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Three-dimensional facial averages can be used to effectively and efficiently compare differences in facial morphologies for various populations and genders. Egyptian males tended to have a larger mandible in the body and ramus areas, a more prominent nose and eyes and are more prominent in the malar region. They are also more prominent in the subnasal area and area between the eyes. Egyptian females showed smaller mandible in the body, ramus, and chin area and a less prominent upper forehead . However, the Egyptian female face shows a more prominent nose, subnasal area, eyes, area between the eyes, and upper lip.

Included in

Dentistry Commons



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