All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Chung How Kau

Advisory Committee Members

Terpsithea Christou

Christos Vlachos

Amjad Javed

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Master of Science (MS) School of Dentistry


VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE LIPS IN AGING AFRICAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN MALES DEPARTMENT OF ORTHODONTICS ABSTRACT The purpose of this cross sectional study was to analyze the volumetric changes in lip volume with respect to aging in a population of African American and Caucasian males using three-dimensional imaging technology. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 102 Caucasian males and 90 African American males with balanced faces divided into five age groups distributed as follows:[20-30], [31-40], [41-50], [51-60], [61-70[.Three-dimensional images were obtained using the 3dMDfaceTM camera system. The subjects were placed in front of the camera in natural head position and two photographs were taken: one at rest, and one with the subject smiling. Landmarks isolating the upper and lower lips were plotted on each image, and the captured images were analyzed for volumetric lip changes using the Aging Evaluation Analysis (AEVA) software (Eotech, Paris, France). A two-way ANOVA and post-hoc test were used to evaluate the effect of age and race on lip volume. Statistical analyses for the volumetric measurements were performed using SAS 9.4 software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). A one-way ANOVA was performed for both racial groups in order to determine the effect of age on upper and lower lip volumes within each race. Results: Age and race were found to independently affect all volumetric measurements, but no statistical significance was found when age and race were combined. Caucasian males showed significant differences for upper lip volume at rest and when smiling across all age groups, however the lower lip measurements were not statistically different. The lip volumes for the African American males followed the same trend with the upper lip showing significant volume increase with age and the lower lip volume remaining the same. African American males demonstrated larger volumes for all measurements when compared to Caucasian males. Conclusions: African American males present larger overall measurements than Caucasian males.The trend for Caucasian and African American males is to have an increase in upper lip volume with age. The lower lip remains relatively constant with time. Keywords: Aging, Lips, Volume, African American, Caucasian, Males

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