All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Diane C Tucker

Advisory Committee Members

Christine Ritchie

Elizabeth Kvale

David Roth

Michael Mugavero

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) College of Arts and Sciences


This longitudinal observational study examined the pain experience of palliative care outpatients during their first four appointments. To illustrate the longitudinal methods used, the author first provides a general overview of the multilevel model for change and then applies it to the outpatients' pain data. Younger age and an existing or new opioid prescription at the first appointment were linked to higher pain intensity and interference scores. Pain intensity and interference trajectories were widely varied across appointments, with the overall effect of a gradual reduction in pain over time. The clinical and research implications of these results are discussed.