All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Susan Miller

Advisory Committee Members

Betty Darnell

Ross Holmes

Robert Oster

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Master of Science (MS) School of Health Professions


Urolithiasis, or kidney stone disease, is a costly and painful health problem affecting about 8.8% of Americans with prevalence on the rise. Calcium oxalate stones account for about 80% of all stones. Increased urinary excretion of calcium and oxalate is a risk factor and central feature of such stones; dietary oxalate contributes up to 50% of urinary oxalate. The purpose of our research is to determine if physical manipulation such as chewing or blending prior to ingestion may render some oxalate more accessible for absorption in spinach, a high-oxalate food. In this crossover, controlled trial we enrolled six healthy, non-stone forming individuals who consumed three different oxalate loads and provided timed urine collections for 24 hours following. The oxalate loads provided 500mg of oxalate and were given via smoothie. One load was a smoothie with blended spinach, one contained spinach cut into 1 cm sq, and one contained soluble sodium oxalate. The results showed that for the six hours following each load, there were significant differences in the amount of oxalate excreted. The load with sodium oxalate had significantly higher oxalate excreted when relative to creatinine than the 1 cm sq spinach (P=0.009) and was trending toward significance when compared to the blended spinach (P=0.052). There were no significant differences between the blended spinach and 1 cm sq spinach or among the three groups for the entire 24-hr period.