All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Chung H Kau

Advisory Committee Members

Christos Vlachos

Andre Ferreira

Amjad Javed

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Master of Dentistry (MDent) School of Dentistry


The aim of this study was to assess the use of 3-dimensional facial averages in determining facial morphologic differences in a Caucasian North American population and a native Brazilian population. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional images were acquired through a commercially available stereo-photogrammetric camera system (The 3dMDfaceTM system). A total of 200 images from two population groups (Caucasian American and Native Brazilian) were taken. Each image was acquired as a facial mesh and orientated along a triangulated axis. All facial images were overlaid and superimposed, using Rapid Form 6 software to create a composite facial average of one man and one woman, for each subgroup. Each participant had a normal BMI, age ranging from 18 to 30 years old, and no gross asymmetry or malocclusion present. Facial differences were quantified and described after superimposing the constructed facial averages. Results: Distinct facial differences were observed between the two population groups most notably in the chin, nose, lips and lower facial regions. When the American female average shell was overlaid on the Brazilian female average, 33% of the face was considered similar. Notable from the histograms, the Brazilian female appeared to have more protrusive lips and a less prominent chin than the American female. The Brazilian male and American male averages were more similar with 48% being within 0.5 mm, though the American male appeared to have a more prominent chin and less protrusive lips. The mean facial differences between the American and Brazilian females were 0.69 ± 0.54 mm while the differences in the American and Brazilian males were 0.66 ± 0.71 mm. Conclusions: Three-dimensional facial averages can be used to effectively and efficiently to compare differences in facial morphologies for various populations and genders. American males tended to have a larger mandible in the body and ramus areas and a more prominent chin. The Brazilian males were more prominent in the subnasal area and upper and lower lip. The American females showed more prominent areas in the nose, malar region and chin button. However, the Brazilian female face shows a more prominent subnasal area, upper and lower lips.

Included in

Dentistry Commons



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