All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Laura Forbes

Advisory Committee Members

Mary Bodine Al-Sharif

William Brooks

Don Lein

John Lowman

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) School of Education


Team-based learning (TBL) is an active pedagogical approach that emphasizes individual and team accountability through specific structuring of classroom assignments and course content. It is widely used throughout the world and across all disciplines of study, although use has increased significantly in the last 20 years, particularly in medicine and health-related fields. In 2008, the conceptual model of TBL was proposed to aid in TBL-related scholarship. While there have been scales designed for use with TBL that pertain to student learning outcomes, most of these focus on student perception and satisfaction, and none of these have used the conceptual model in their development. This dissertation is part of a larger study that uses a systematic approach in survey construction incorporating qualitative methodology and quantitative methodology to develop and preliminarily validate the Team-Based Learning Student Outcomes Measure (TBL-SOM). This dissertation represents the qualitative portion; specifically, using focus group methodology and purposeful sampling of 25 graduate students who have personal experience with team-based learning to consider their perspective regarding the validity of the operationally defined constructs and corresponding items of the TBL-SOM, which were developed based on an extensive literature review and investigative team majority consensus. Using Braun and Clarke’s approach to reflexive thematic analysis, four themes were identified from the focus group discussions: three instrument-based and one non-instrument-based themes. There are direct implications for revisions to the TBL-SOM, mostly pertaining to word choice, formatting, and sequencing of content. Findings could also inform future research, including replication of these methods with different stakeholders. Results could also guide TBL practitioners regarding course design and implementation, within the essential components associated with high fidelity TBL.

Available for download on Friday, May 09, 2025

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