All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Andre Ferreira

Advisory Committee Members

Lionel Sadowsky

John Burges

Mark Litaker

Firoz Rahemtulla

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Master of Science (MS) School of Dentistry


Controlling friction is an important aspect of orthodontics because it allows more predictable tooth movement with less anchorage loss. Friction at the bracket/archwire/ligation interface can reduce the force available for desired tooth movement. Initial stages of orthodontic treatment depend on the ability of the archwire to slide freely through the bracket, making friction an important aspect of all orthodontic brackets in the early phases of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to measure the force to move esthetic brackets over an archwire using different ligation methods. A stainless steel model reproducing the maxillary right dentition was used to test brackets in combination with self-ligation, a new non-conventional elastomeric ligature or a conventional elastic ligature. Static and kinetic friction was measured as the force required pulling a 0.014-inch superelastic nickel titanium archwire through the brackets. The test was first conducted with all the brackets aligned and then with the canine bracket moved apically 3mm. In the aligned configuration mean static friction for the Damon3 MX bracket (Ormco, Glendora, California) was significantly lower than that for the Inspire Ice bracket (Ormco, Glendora, California) with Slide ligation (Leone, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy). There were no other significant differences. iii In the misaligned configuration Clarity SL (3M Unitek, Monrovia, California), Clarity/Slide, and ICE/Slide each generated a modest amount of friction that was statistically similar and ranged from 317-372g. Each of these three combinations generated significantly less static friction than the Damon3 MX and the ICE/conventional elastic ligature in the misaligned configuration. Additionally, ICE/conventional elastic ligature in the misaligned configuration generated significantly more kinetic friction than the Damon3 MX. It can be concluded that a frictionless ligature can reduce the classical friction associated with esthetic brackets.

Included in

Dentistry Commons



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