All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Christos Vlachos

Advisory Committee Members

Terpsithea Christou

Harvey Keith

Amjad Javed

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Master of Science (MS) School of Dentistry


Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the dental and skeletal effects of Class II malocclusion correction with a Carriere® Motion 3D appliance and lower Essix retainer for anchorage, as compared to best-matched controls. Methods: This is a retrospective case-control cephalometric study uses pre- and post-distalization lateral cephalometric images from 44 (32 female, 12 male, average age 13y 7m) class II patients treated with a Carriere® Motion 3D appliance and lower Essix retainer. These films were analyzed to determine treatment effects and compared with 35 (17 female, 18 male, average age 13y 3m) untreated controls from a historical database best-matched for age and skeletal growth pattern. Results: Class II molar correction was completed in an average of 4.7 months mainly by dentoalveolar changes, exhibited largely by anterior movement of the mandibular dentition. The maxillary molar was distalized 1.20 mm and tipped 4.85°, while the mandibular molar mesialized 3.16 mm and the mandibular incisors moved forward (1.09 mm) and proclined (2.68°). Conclusion: The Carriere® Motion 3D appliance with a lower Essix retainer effectively corrects a class II molar relationship in an average of 4.7 months before the onset of comprehensive orthodontics; treatment effects are similar to the effects seen with class II elastics used with fixed appliances.