All ETDs from UAB

Advisory Committee Chair

Stephanie Pink-Harper

Advisory Committee Members

Andrew Baer

Nevbahar Ertas

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name by School

Master of Public Administration (MPA) College of Arts and Sciences


This thesis is a comparative case study examining the impact of the Tulsa Race Massacre in 1921 and the Birmingham Sixteenth Street Church Bombing in 1963. The comparative case study method aims to study how both communities educated the public about racial violence through the nonprofit sector. This research explores the racial structures that were in place during the time. This thesis argues for the role of the government in providing diversity, equity, accessibility, and inclusion training for federal employees. This research also discusses the government's contribution to advancing social equity.